Get started
Get the app

Join millions of investors on Stash

Investing, simplified

Start today with as little as $5
Get the app
Teach Me

What’s a Monopoly? It’s All About Competition

April 30, 2018

  • A monopoly is when one company, or a group of companies, controls an entire market
  • Monopolies are bad for consumers and smaller businesses
  • The U.S. has strong anti-monopoly laws, starting with the Sherman Act
2 min read

In the game of Monopoly, you win when you take control of all the properties on the board.

In the business world, a monopoly is when one company, or group of companies, controls production or sales in an entire market or sector.

Why are monopolies bad for consumers?

When one company controls an entire market or sector, it gets to set prices with little or no competition from other businesses. Robust competition is a vital component of keeping prices affordable for consumers. Competition is also vital for smaller companies to develop and thrive.

Who decides when something is a monopoly?

The FTC and the Department of Justice (DOJ) are the two main agencies that weigh in about potential mergers, and whether they violate antitrust laws. The FTC is a regulatory body that can bring enforcement actions companies and individuals. The DOJ enforces those actions in the federal courts.

Penalties for violating antitrust laws can include millions of dollars in fines, as well as jail time.

Examples of monopolies

There are two primary types of monopolies. The first, called a vertical monopoly, is when companies in different industries combine to control products and services in a single supply chain. The combined companies then own the entire manufacturing and distribution process. For example, a large car company might acquire an auto parts manufacturer, to get pricing benefits. A flour company might acquire the farms producing wheat, and the stores that sell the flour. There’s nothing wrong with such an arrangement, in and of itself. But it could be problematic if the companies involved get large and start edging out competitors.

One of the most famous vertical monopolies was American Telephone & Telegraph (AT&T), also known as the Bell System. The telephone monopoly, which produced the national telephone network and all the products that could be attached to it, was broken up into eight separate companies in 1982.

The second type of monopoly is called a horizontal monopoly, which is when companies in the same industry merge. Two banks might consider combining, for example. Or two energy companies that produce petroleum.  The more roll-ups like this that happen in a single industry, the fewer choices consumers have between products.

Standard Oil, John D. Rockefeller’s oil company, was considered a horizontal monopoly. It was broken up in 1911, into 34 different companies.

Aren’t there laws against monopolies?

The U.S. created strong anti-monopoly laws, sometimes referred to as antitrust laws, starting in the 19th century. There are three primary laws.

The first law, passed in 1890, is called the Sherman Act, which essentially outlaws monopolistic and anti-competitive practices by corporations. Congress soon followed up with the Federal Trade Commission Act, which created the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), and regulates against anticompetitive, deceptive, and unfair business practices.

A further law, called the Clayton Act, deals with anti-competitive pricing and allows trade unions to organize to prevent monopolistic mergers.

By Jeremy Quittner
Jeremy Quittner is the senior writer for Stash.

Next for you
Why Does Walmart Want to Purchase Humana?

Investment Profile

Legal Cannabis Industry

Get all the details on investing in marijuana and the cannabis industry legally.

Learn more
Explore more articlesChoose a topic to learn more about
pop culture politics Technology budgeting Retirement

This material has been distributed for informational and educational purposes only, represents an assessment of the market environment as of the date of publication, is subject to change without notice, and is not intended as investment, legal, accounting, or tax advice or opinion. Stash assumes no obligation to provide notifications of changes in any factors that could affect the information provided. This information should not be relied upon by the reader as research or investment advice regarding any issuer or security in particular. The strategies discussed are strictly for illustrative and educational purposes and should not be construed as a recommendation to purchase or sell, or an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy any security. There is no guarantee that any strategies discussed will be effective.

Furthermore, the information presented does not take into consideration commissions, tax implications, or other transactional costs, which may significantly affect the economic consequences of a given strategy or investment decision. This information is not intended as a recommendation to invest in any particular asset class or strategy or as a promise of future performance. There is no guarantee that any investment strategy will work under all market conditions or is suitable for all investors. Each investor should evaluate their ability to invest long term, especially during periods of downturn in the market. Investors should not substitute these materials for professional services, and should seek advice from an independent advisor before acting on any information presented. Before investing, please carefully consider your willingness to take on risk and your financial ability to afford investment losses when deciding how much individual security exposure to have in your investment portfolio.

Past performance does not guarantee future results. There is a potential for loss as well as gain in investing. Stash does not represent in any manner that the circumstances described herein will result in any particular outcome. While the data and analysis Stash uses from third party sources is believed to be reliable, Stash does not guarantee the accuracy of such information. Nothing in this article should be considered as a solicitation or offer, or recommendation, to buy or sell any particular security or investment product or to engage in any investment strategy. No part of this material may be reproduced in any form, or referred to in any other publication, without express written permission. Stash does not provide personalized financial planning to investors, such as estate, tax, or retirement planning. Investment advisory services are only provided to investors who become Stash Clients pursuant to a written Advisory Agreement. For more information please visit www.stashinvest.com/disclosures.